10 Steps from Seed to Cup (2023)

The coffee you enjoy each day has taken a long journey to arrive in your cup.

Between the time they’re planted, picked and purchased, coffee beans go through a typical series of steps to bring out their best.

1. Planting

10 Steps from Seed to Cup (1)A coffee bean is actually a seed. When dried, roasted and ground, it’s used to brew coffee. If the seed isn’t processed, it can be planted and grow into a coffee tree.

Coffee seeds are generally planted in large beds inshaded nurseries. The seedlings will be watered frequently and shaded from bright sunlight until they are hearty enough to be permanently planted. Planting often takes place during the wet season, so that the soil remains moist while the roots become firmly established.

2. Harvesting the Cherries

10 Steps from Seed to Cup (2)Depending on the variety, it will take approximately 3 to 4 years for the newly planted coffee trees to bear fruit. The fruit, called the coffee cherry, turns a bright, deep red when it is ripe and ready to be harvested.

There is typically one major harvest a year. In countries like Colombia, where there are two flowerings annually, there is a main and secondary crop.

In most countries, the crop is picked by hand in a labor-intensive and difficult process, though in places like Brazil where the landscape is relatively flat and the coffee fields immense, the process has been mechanized. Whether by hand or by machine, all coffee is harvested in one of two ways:

(Video) 10 Steps From Seed To Cup - Journey Of A Coffee Bean

Strip Picked: All of the cherries are stripped off of the branch at one time, either by machine or by hand.

Selectively Picked: Only the ripe cherries are harvested, and they are picked individually by hand. Pickers rotate among the trees every eight to 10 days, choosing only the cherries which are at the peak of ripeness. Because this kind of harvest is labor intensive and more costly, it is used primarily to harvest the finer Arabica beans.

A good picker averages approximately 100 to 200 pounds of coffee cherries a day, which will produce 20 to 40 pounds of coffee beans. Each worker's daily haul is carefully weighed, and each picker is paid on the merit of his or her work. The day's harvest is then transported to the processing plant.

3. Processing the Cherries

10 Steps from Seed to Cup (3)Once the coffee has been picked, processing must begin as quickly as possible to prevent fruit spoilage. Depending on location and local resources, coffee is processed in one of two ways:

The Dry Method is the age-old method of processing coffee, and still used in many countries where water resources are limited. The freshly picked cherries are simply spread out on huge surfaces to dry in the sun. In order to prevent the cherries from spoiling, they are raked and turned throughout the day, then covered at night or during rain to prevent them from getting wet. Depending on the weather, this process might continue for several weeks for each batch of coffee until the moisture content of the cherries drops to 11%.

The Wet Method removes the pulp from the coffee cherry after harvesting so the bean is dried with only the parchment skin left on. First, the freshly harvested cherries are passed through a pulping machine to separate the skin and pulp from the bean.

Then the beans are separated by weight as they pass through water channels. The lighter beans float to the top, while the heavier ripe beans sink to the bottom. They are passed through a series of rotating drums which separate them by size.

After separation, the beans are transported to large, water-filled fermentation tanks. Depending on a combination of factors -- such as the condition of the beans, the climate and the altitude -- they will remain in these tanks for anywhere from 12 to 48 hours to remove the slick layer of mucilage (called the parenchyma) that is still attached to the parchment. While resting in the tanks, naturally occurring enzymes will cause this layer to dissolve.

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When fermentation is complete, the beans feel rough to the touch. The beans are rinsed by going through additional water channels, and are ready for drying.

4. Drying the Beans

10 Steps from Seed to Cup (4)If the beans have been processed by the wet method, the pulped and fermented beans must now be dried to approximately 11% moisture to properly prepare them for storage.

These beans, still inside the parchment envelope (the endocarp), can be sun-dried by spreading them on drying tables or floors, where they are turned regularly, or they can be machine-dried in large tumblers. The dried beans are known as parchment coffee, and are warehoused in jute or sisal bags until they are readied for export.

5. Milling the Beans

10 Steps from Seed to Cup (5)

Before being exported, parchment coffee is processed in the following manner:

Hulling machinery removes the parchment layer (endocarp) from wet processed coffee. Hulling dry processed coffee refers to removing the entire dried husk — the exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp — of the dried cherries.

Polishing is an optional process where any silver skin that remains on the beans after hulling is removed by machine. While polished beans are considered superior to unpolished ones, in reality, there is little difference between the two.

Grading and Sorting is done by size and weight, and beans are also reviewed for color flaws or other imperfections.

(Video) 9-Step process to get the best coffee! From Seed to Cup!

Beans are sized by being passed through a series of screens. They are also sorted pneumatically by using an air jet to separate heavy from light beans.

Typically, the bean size is represented on a scale of 10 to 20. The number represents the size of a round hole's diameter in terms of 1/64's of an inch. A number 10 bean would be the approximate size of a hole in a diameter of 10/64 of an inch, and a number 15 bean, 15/64 of an inch.

Finally, defective beans are removed either by hand or by machinery. Beans that are unsatisfactory due to deficiencies (unacceptable size or color, over-fermented beans, insect-damaged, unhulled) are removed. In many countries, this process is done both by machine and by hand, ensuring that only the finest quality coffee beans are exported.

6. Exporting the Beans

10 Steps from Seed to Cup (6)The milled beans, now referred to as green coffee, are loaded onto ships in either jute or sisal bags loaded in shipping containers, or bulk-shipped inside plastic-lined containers.

World coffee production for 2015/16 is forecast to be 152.7 million 60-kg bags, per data from the USDA Foreign Agriculture Service.

7. Tasting the Coffee

10 Steps from Seed to Cup (7)Coffee is repeatedly tested for quality and taste. This process is referred to as cupping and usually takes place in a room specifically designed to facilitate the process.

  • First, the taster — usually called the cupper — evaluates the beans for their overall visual quality. The beans are then roasted in a small laboratory roaster, immediately ground and infused in boiling water with carefully-controlled temperature. The cupper noses the brew to experience its aroma, an essential step in judging the coffee's quality.
  • After letting the coffee rest for several minutes, the cupper breaks the crust by pushing aside the grounds at the top of the cup. Again, the coffee is nosed before the tasting begins.
  • To taste the coffee, the cupper slurps a spoonful with a quick inhalation. The objective is to spray the coffee evenly over the cupper's taste buds, and then weigh it on the tongue before spitting it out.

Samples from a variety of batches and different beans are tasted daily. Coffees are not only analyzed to determine their characteristics and flaws, but also for the purpose of blending different beans or creating the proper roast. An expert cupper can taste hundreds of samples of coffee a day and still taste the subtle differences between them.

8. Roasting the Coffee

10 Steps from Seed to Cup (8)Roasting transforms green coffee into the aromatic brown beans that we purchase in our favorite stores or cafés. Most roasting machines maintain a temperature of about 550 degrees Fahrenheit. The beans are kept moving throughout the entire process to keep them from burning.

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When they reach an internal temperature of about 400 degrees Fahrenheit, they begin to turn brown and the caffeol, a fragrant oil locked inside the beans, begins to emerge. This process called pyrolysis is at the heart of roasting — it produces the flavor and aroma of the coffee we drink.

After roasting, the beans are immediately cooled either by air or water. Roasting is generally performed in the importing countries because freshly roasted beans must reach the consumer as quickly as possible.

9. Grinding Coffee

10 Steps from Seed to Cup (9)The objective of a proper grind is to get the most flavor in a cup of coffee. How coarse or fine the coffee is ground depends on the brewing method.

The length of time the grounds will be in contact with water determines the ideal grade of grind Generally, the finer the grind, the more quickly the coffee should be prepared. That’s why coffee ground for an espresso machine is much finer than coffee brewed in a drip system.

Espresso machines use 132 pounds per square inch of pressure to extract coffee.

We recommend taking a moment to examine the beans and smell their aroma — in fact, the scent of coffee alone has been shown to have energizing effects on the brain.

10. Brewing Coffee

10 Steps from Seed to Cup (10)To master how to brew coffee, use our guide for tips and methods on how to make the perfect cup for any preference. Enjoy!

Image credit:source: Giphy

FAQs

What steps are involved in making a cup of coffee? ›

It's Brew Time!
  1. Step 1: Measure for your brew ratio. ...
  2. Step 2: Grind the coffee. ...
  3. Step 3: Boil the water and wait 1 minute. ...
  4. Step 4: Place and wet the filter. ...
  5. Step 5: Place the coffee in the filter. ...
  6. Step 6: Pour and wait. ...
  7. Step 7: Continue and complete your pour. ...
  8. Step 8: Enjoy your coffee!
1 Jun 2021

How do you make coffee in 7 steps? ›

They are as follows:
  1. Choose. Choose the correct portafilter for the drink. ...
  2. Grinding. Ground coffee will start to go stale after about 20 minutes. ...
  3. Dosing. ...
  4. Levelling. ...
  5. Tamping. ...
  6. Flushing /Rinsing. ...
  7. Brewing.

How do you make coffee from scratch? ›

Measure a tablespoon of coffee for each cup of coffee you want to make. Grind your coffee on a medium, sand-like grind. Wet the grounds with a little water and wait for at least 30 seconds (longer if your beans are very fresh) Pour half of the remaining water over a 30-second duration.

What are the 3 major coffee processing methods? ›

In today's innovative world, there are innumerable ways to process coffee including plenty of experimental methods. Today we'll be focusing on the three main methods used to process coffee: Washed Process, Natural (or Dry) Process, and Honey Process.

How do you make a cup of tea step by step? ›

How to make a cup of tea?
  1. Fill up the kettle with water.
  2. Boil the kettle.
  3. Place a teabag in your favourite mug.
  4. Pour boiling water into your favourite mug.
  5. Brew the tea for a few moments.
  6. Remove and dispose of the teabag.
  7. Add milk.
  8. Add sugar.

How do you make coffee in 5 steps? ›

5 steps to make the perfect cup of coffee
  1. Keep it fresh. Coffee tastes best soon after being roasted, but too soon and the full flavour profile won't have developed. ...
  2. Choose the best beans. ...
  3. Grind your own. ...
  4. Use the right water. ...
  5. Measure the coffee. ...
  6. Enjoyed 5 steps to make the perfect cup of coffee?

How much coffee do I use for 10 cups? ›

For 10 coffee cups: 12 ½ tablespoons coffee, medium grind and 50 ounces cold water.

How do you make a cup of coffee paragraph? ›

Basic steps to make perfect coffee:
  1. Line the basket of your coffee maker with a filter. Grind coffee beans to medium or medium-fine grind size. ...
  2. Pour enough water into the filter to wet it completely, and let it drain into your cup or coffee pot. Discard the water.
  3. Measure the ground coffee into the wet filter.
24 Jul 2020

How much coffee do I use for 12 cups? ›

A standard 12-cup coffeemaker requires 12 to 26 tablespoons of ground coffee or about 12 to 13 scoops. Twelve 6 fluid ounce cups of coffee will be produced.

How coffee is made from the plant? ›

Planting

A coffee bean is actually a seed. When dried, roasted and ground, it's used to brew coffee. If the seed isn't processed, it can be planted and grow into a coffee tree. Coffee seeds are generally planted in large beds in shaded nurseries.

How do you grow a coffee seed? ›

It is advisable to pre-germinate the seeds. First soak the coffee seeds in water for 24 hours. Then sow the seeds in damp sand or wet vermiculite in which the excess water has been drained. Otherwise, you can place the seeds between moist coffee sacks, which should be watered twice a day and drained well.

How yo make a French press? ›

Add a heaping tablespoon (7-8 grams) of coffee to the pot per 200 ml (6.7 oz) of water. Pour hot water—not quite boiling—into the pot, and gently stir. Carefully reinsert the plunger into the pot, stopping just above the water and ground coffee (do not plunge yet), and let stand for 3-4 minutes.

What is natural coffee process? ›

Natural sundried, also called “natural process” or “dry process,” means drying coffee cherries whole without the intervention of water or machines to remove any of the fruit. Prior to drying, the cherries are picked, floated in water, and sorted to remove any under-ripe or overripe fruit.

Which coffee processing is best? ›

The washed process is able to highlight the true character of single origin beans like no other process. This is why so many specialty coffees use the wet process. This method generally produces the highest quality coffees.

How do you dry coffee seeds? ›

Coffee is dried in two main ways. The first is by spreading beans out under the sun on raised beds or patios. The second is by using dedicated mechanical coffee dryers.

What are the 6 steps to making a cup of tea? ›

We put together a foolproof guide to help you brew the perfect cup of tea each time, in only six steps.
  1. Heat the water to just about boiling point. ...
  2. Add your tea bags to your pot or cup. ...
  3. Pour the water directly onto the tea bags.
  4. Stir the tea once, and then let it steep for 1.5-2 minutes. ...
  5. Remove the tea bags.

How much coffee makes a cup? ›

The standard ratio for brewing coffee is 1-2 tablespoons of ground coffee per 6 ounces of water – 1 tablespoon for lighter coffee and 2 for stronger coffee. That 6-ounce measure is equivalent to one “cup” in a standard coffeemaker, but keep in mind that the standard mug size is closer to 12 ounces or larger.

How do you make a cup of coffee with milk? ›

To make coffee, combine 1 tsp instant coffee powder, 2 tsp sugar and 1 tbsp hot water in a serving cup and mix very well for 2 to 3 minutes or till the sugar dissolves. Pour ½ cup of hot milk over it and mix gently. Repeat steps 1 and 2 to make 3 more servings. Serve the coffee immediately.

How do you make coffee with water? ›

Method:
  1. Boil the kettle (remember to boil a little more than you need)
  2. Pre-heat your mug by filling it with hot water from the kettle. ...
  3. Add 2g of Little's flavoured instant coffee to the mug (approx. ...
  4. One minute after the kettle has boiled, pour 200ml of hot water over the coffee granules.
  5. Stir until the granules dissolve.
13 Jul 2021

How many scoops is 10 cups? ›

How much coffee for 10 cups? What is this? To make 10 cups of coffee at average strength, use 90 grams of coffee and 50 ounces (6 1/4 measuring cups) of water. That's about 10 level scoops of coffee, or 20 level tablespoons.

How much coffee do I use for 2 cups? ›

For 2 cups, 16 oz water plus four tablespoons of coffee will be enough, and for 3 cups =24 oz water plus 6 tablespoons coffee. For 4 oz water plus 8 tablespoons of coffee and for cups, 40 oz water plus 10 tablespoons coffee.

How much coffee do I use for 4 cups? ›

How many tablespoons of coffee do you use for 4 cups? If you want to prepare four cups of coffee you will need exactly 4 scoops of ground beans, or, if you prefer, 8 tablespoons. If you want stronger coffee, you can go for 10 tablespoons and you will get four delicious cups of coffee.

How do you make a good single cup of coffee? ›

Recipe for One Cup of Drip Coffee | Exact Measurements and Instructions

How do you make a cup of coffee Wikihow? ›

Mix 2 teaspoons of instant coffee with 12 cup (120 mL) of hot water. Heat the water in the microwave for 30 seconds to 1 minute. Stir the coffee and hot water together until the coffee granules are dissolved. Mix your coffee in the glass you want to drink from or in a separate cup.

How much coffee do I use for 6 cups? ›

For making 6 cups, we recommend 10 Tablespoons or ~ 60 grams of coffee. For making 8 cups, we think 14 Tablespoons or ~80 grams of coffee is a good starting point. You may need to use more or less coffee, depending on your preferred coffee strength.

How much coffee do I need for 100 cups? ›

Two tablespoons of coffee is an average amount of coffee grounds to make one standard cup of coffee; but if you use that same ratio for 100 cups of coffee, you'd be using roughly 12 1/2 cups of coffee grounds.

How much coffee is too much? ›

Up to 400 milligrams (mg) of caffeine a day appears to be safe for most healthy adults. That's roughly the amount of caffeine in four cups of brewed coffee, 10 cans of cola or two "energy shot" drinks. Keep in mind that the actual caffeine content in beverages varies widely, especially among energy drinks.

Who first drank coffee? ›

Believed to have originated in Ethiopia, coffee was used in the Middle East in the 16th century to aid concentration.

Is coffee fruit edible? ›

Yes, you can eat raw coffee cherries, since they are essentially a fruit.

Is coffee a bean or a berry? ›

While they do look a lot like beans, coffee “beans” are actually the seed, or pit, of the fruit that grows on coffee trees. Coffee trees grow small, bright red fruit called coffee cherries.

What is green coffee? ›

Green coffee is unroasted coffee beans from Coffea fruits (Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora). It contains more chlorogenic acid than roasted coffee. The chlorogenic acid in green coffee is thought to have health benefits. It might affect blood vessels so that blood pressure is reduced.

Can you grow coffee in Texas? ›

Coffee plants are commercially grown in Hawaii, Texas, and California. The latter one boasting over 30 farms that grow more than 30,000 trees.

Is coffee a soup? ›

Coffee "beans" aren't actually beans at all, they're seeds. So coffee is a broth (as opposed to a soup) made from a particular kind of seed.

What is coffee bloom? ›

The bloom is the part of the coffee brewing process in which the gasses from the coffee are released as the water hits the grinds. It causes the grinds to grow & rise. The CO2 that is inside the bean is purged out and replaced with the water and begins the brewing/extraction process.

Why is my French press coffee weak? ›

The reason French press coffee tastes weak is due to several factors such as not using enough coffee, not steeping the coffee for long enough, water temperature is not hot enough, coffee is ground too coarse, or the coffee is a light roast.

Is French press coffee stronger? ›

French press coffee is also typically stronger than regular coffee because it is filtered with a fine mesh screen which allows the fines in the coffee grind to make it into the final brewed carafe.

What is honey coffee? ›

Simply put, a “honey” is a coffee that has been depulped but left to dry in its mucilage, the sticky fruit coating that lives just underneath the coffee cherry's skin, or pulp. Often, the honey itself will be classified by color, such as white honey, or yellow, red, or black.

Is washed coffee good? ›

Washed coffees are prized for their clarity and vibrant notes. Removing all of the cherry prior to drying allows the intrinsic flavors of the bean to shine without anything holding them back. Fruit notes are still found in washed coffees, however, fermented notes and berry notes are less common.

How long does it take to grow coffee? ›

Depending on the variety, it will take approximately 3 to 4 years for the newly planted coffee trees to bear fruit. The fruit, called the coffee cherry, turns a bright, deep red when it is ripe and ready to be harvested. There is typically one major harvest a year.

Can you make coffee with honey? ›

Honey has long been used to sweeten foods and beverages, including tea and coffee. In fact, many people prefer this sweet, thick liquid as a healthier alternative to sugar or zero-calorie sweeteners.

How many methods of coffee processing are there? ›

The three main methods to process coffee are Natural (also called dry process), Washed (also called wet processed) and Honey (also called pulped natural). Each method of coffee lends itself to a different final cup flavour.

What are the two methods of coffee primary processing? ›

Primary processing of coffee beans can be done by wet method or dry method. Wet method is applicable for ripe berries, which are harvested by priming method.

What is green coffee powder? ›

Green coffee is unroasted coffee beans from Coffea fruits (Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora). It contains more chlorogenic acid than roasted coffee. The chlorogenic acid in green coffee is thought to have health benefits. It might affect blood vessels so that blood pressure is reduced.

How do you make cherry coffee? ›

How to Process Coffee at Home in 7 Steps (2.5 Minute Version) - YouTube

What is dry process coffee? ›

Dry process seems simple: Pick the fruit, lay it out in the sun until it turns from red to brown to near-black, and then hull off the thick, dried outer layer in one step to reveal the green bean. It is a method suited to arid regions, where the sun and heat can dry the seed inside the intact fruit skin.

How do you make coffee in 3 steps? ›

Basic steps to make perfect coffee:

Grind coffee beans to medium or medium-fine grind size. Bring filtered water to a boil, then let it sit for a minute. Pour enough water into the filter to wet it completely, and let it drain into your cup or coffee pot. Discard the water.

How do you make a good single cup of coffee? ›

Recipe for One Cup of Drip Coffee | Exact Measurements and Instructions

How do you make a cup of coffee What should you do to the water? ›

How to make the perfect cup of coffee.
  1. Use cold filtered water (if you don't like drinking your home water, don't make coffee with it)
  2. Measure your coffee- use 1 tablespoons of ground coffee for every 6-8 ounces of water (usually one cup on your brewer)
  3. Water temperature needs to be between 195 degrees – 205 degrees.
17 Mar 2018

How do you make a hot coffee write the ingredients tools and steps? ›

Method:
  1. Add Milk to a pan.
  2. Heat pan on medium flame.
  3. After a minute, take 2 spoons of Milk from the pan to a bowl.
  4. Add the Coffee Powder to the bowl.
  5. Whisk the Milk and Coffee Powder well till they are mixed properly.
  6. Then add this Milk and Coffee mixture back to the pan.
  7. Add Sugar to it.
  8. Wait for the Milk to boil once.
25 Jun 2018

How do you make a cup of coffee with milk? ›

To make coffee, combine 1 tsp instant coffee powder, 2 tsp sugar and 1 tbsp hot water in a serving cup and mix very well for 2 to 3 minutes or till the sugar dissolves. Pour ½ cup of hot milk over it and mix gently. Repeat steps 1 and 2 to make 3 more servings. Serve the coffee immediately.

How do you make coffee for studying? ›

Step 1-Heat a pan and boil 1 cup of water. Step 2-Once the water is boiled, turn off the stove. Step 3-Take a coffee mug, add 2-3 tablespoons of hot water and add instant coffee powder. Step 4-Mix coffee in hot water well to avoid any lumps.

How yo make a French press? ›

Add a heaping tablespoon (7-8 grams) of coffee to the pot per 200 ml (6.7 oz) of water. Pour hot water—not quite boiling—into the pot, and gently stir. Carefully reinsert the plunger into the pot, stopping just above the water and ground coffee (do not plunge yet), and let stand for 3-4 minutes.

How much dry coffee makes a cup? ›

The standard ratio for brewing coffee is 1-2 tablespoons of ground coffee per 6 ounces of water – 1 tablespoon for lighter coffee and 2 for stronger coffee. That 6-ounce measure is equivalent to one “cup” in a standard coffeemaker, but keep in mind that the standard mug size is closer to 12 ounces or larger.

How much coffee do I use for 2 cups of water? ›

When using tablespoons and an 8-ounce cup, this is the general rule. For 2 cups, 16 oz water plus four tablespoons of coffee will be enough, and for 3 cups =24 oz water plus 6 tablespoons coffee. For 4 oz water plus 8 tablespoons of coffee and for cups, 40 oz water plus 10 tablespoons coffee.

How much coffee do I use for 10 cups? ›

For 10 coffee cups: 12 ½ tablespoons coffee, medium grind and 50 ounces cold water.

Can I make coffee with water? ›

The simplest way to make coffee without a coffee maker is by adding hot water to coffee grounds. If you're in a rush, just boil water in your kettle, or heat some water on the stovetop then pour it into a mug with the coffee granules.

How much coffee do I use for 12 cups? ›

A standard 12-cup coffeemaker requires 12 to 26 tablespoons of ground coffee or about 12 to 13 scoops. Twelve 6 fluid ounce cups of coffee will be produced.

How do you make a cup of coffee with powder? ›

Mix 2 teaspoons of instant coffee with 12 cup (120 mL) of hot water. Heat the water in the microwave for 30 seconds to 1 minute. Stir the coffee and hot water together until the coffee granules are dissolved. Mix your coffee in the glass you want to drink from or in a separate cup.

What ingredients is needed to make a cup of hot coffee? ›

Ingredients
  • 1.5 teaspoons nescafe instant coffee.
  • 1.5 tablespoons sugar or add as per taste.
  • 3 tablespoons hot water.
  • 1 cup milk (250 ml)
5 Dec 2019

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